• RAFAL SAUD IDHAM Dept.of Mathematics, College of Education Pure Science,University of Mosul-Iraq
  • KHAWLA MUSTAFA SADIK AL-BAKIR Dept.of Mathematics, College of Education Pure Science,University of Mosul-Iraq


On the basis of the Preparations so far, we are now ready to look at a formal derivation of dual scaling. As you may have guessed from the many names for the quantification method and from the earlier discussion of the many ideas behind dual scaling, there are a number of ways to formulate it. This paper contains a detailed description of one of them. Some readers may find this paper too technical  Many formulas are presented in this paper occasionally without sufficient background information .However, once of the basic idea is understood, technical matters can be mastered through self-directed endeavor, and this paper should serve such guide by offering bird’s eye view of mathematical treatment of dual scaling.


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How to Cite
IDHAM , R. S., & AL-BAKIR, K. M. S. (2021). MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT OF DUAL SCALING. Journal of Duhok University, 24(1), 39-45.
Pure and Engineering Sciences