• QAIDAR N. ABDULSAMAD Dept.of SpatialPlanning, College of Spatial Planning,University of Duhok
Keywords: Hospital Waste, Generation Rates, Waste Handling, Waste Transportation, Treatment methods


Duhok city, like other cities of the Kurdistan region, has witnessed a population growth that involved an increase in health-care demands, which has affected the waste generation amount from the existing health-care facilities including four hospitals. The objectives of this research are to explore the management of the hospital solid waste, investigate the approaches used for calculating it, and evaluate of its management process. Through this research, a sample of four public and private hospitals has been taken as case studies for investigating the hospitals’ solid waste quantity and management.

The research findings estimated the solid waste generation rates of the four selected hospitals at 2,856 KG per month (Azadi Hospital - 841 Kg, Emergency hospital - 459 Kg, Vin Hospital - 636 Kg, and Vajin Hospital - 920 Kg).

Solid waste management is neglected in the private hospitals and inadequate management in the public hospitals in Duhok city because of the lack of regulation, policies, and instruction from the health and environment directorates of Duhok city


Download data is not yet available.


Al-Ghabban, M. M., Mizzouri, N. S., Mahmood, F. R., Hassan, H. H., & Abdulrahman, K. I. (2018). Assessment of Waste Generation rate of Medical Hazardous in Duhok Governorate (Proposal of alternative disposal and management methods). Academic Journal of Nawroz University, 7(4), 139-152. doi:10.25007/ajnu. v7n4a283
Ali, M., Wang, W., & Chaudhry, N. (2016). Application of life cycle assessment for hospital solid waste management: A case study. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 66(10), 1012-1018. https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2016.1196263
Ali, M., Wang, W., Chaudhry, N., & Geng, Y. (2017). Hospital waste management in developing countries: A mini review. Waste Management & Research, 35(6), 581-592. doi: 10.1177/0734242X17691344
Arab, M., Rouhollah Askari, B., Tajvar, M., Pourreza, (2008). Report: The assessment of hospital waste management: a case study in Tehran. Waste Management & Research, 26(3), 304-308. DOI: 10.1177/0734242X08093598
Al-Thukair, A., Mohamed, L. F., & Ebrahim, S. A. (2009, April 19). Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain. International Journal of Integrated Waste Management, Science and Technology, 29 (2009), 2404-2409. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.02.015
Blackman, W.C. (2016). Basic hazardous waste management. CRC press
Buy OptiMaser- Microwave Medical Waste Disinfection & Sterilization System | ID - 1612215. (2020). Retrieved 9 April 2020,fromhttps://www.exportersindia.com/ssmedicalsystems/optimaser-microwave-medical-waste-disinfection-sterilization-system-lucknow-india-1612215.htm
Caros, (2018, June 12). What Is Biomedical Waste: Medical Waste Examples: MedWaste Services. Retrieved March 23, 2020, from https://medwasteservice.com/biomedical-waste-examples/
Debere, M.K., Gelaye,K.A., Alamdo, A.G., &Trifa, Z.M. (2013). Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health,28(2013), 13-28. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-28
Gambo, J., Ahmed, G., Hadiza, Z. H., Idris, M.A., Babura, B.S. and Yusuf A.Y, (2018). Assessing the Impacts of Improper Medical Waste Disposal and Residents Perception of their Disposal Practices in Hadejia Metropolis, Jigawa State, Nigeria. Nigerian Research Journal of Chemical Science, 4(2018).
Henry, J., and Heinke, G. (1996). Environmental science and engineering. Brooklyn Park, MN: Pearson
Marceta, M., & Nađ, I. (2018). Effect of medical waste on health of population and environment in the Republic of Serbia. Zbornik Radova Departmana Za Geografiju, Turizam I Hotelijerstvo, (47-2), 94-112. doi:10.5937/zbdght1802094m
Medical Waste Treatment Methods. (2020, October 24). Retrieved 11 March 2020, from https://www.hazardouswasteexperts.com/regulated-medical-waste-treatment-methods/.

Medical Waste Treatment Solutions for Contaminated Biohazardous Waste. Medicalwasteautoclaves.com. (2020). Retrieved 11 April 2020, from https://medicalwasteautoclaves.com/medical-waste-treatment.php.
Mehrdad Askarian, Mahmood Vakili & Gholamhosein Kabir. (2004). Results of a hospital waste survey in private hospitals in Fars province, Iran. Waste Management, 24(4), 347–352. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2003.09.008
Mumtaz Hussain, M. M. M. (2014). Awareness about Hospital Wastes and its effects on the Health of Patients in District Dera Ghazi Khan Mumtaz, Asian J. Appl. Sci. Eng., 3 (8), 111–115.
Prüss A, Townend WK, Teacher's guide: safe management of wastes from health-care activities; unpublished document WHO/EOS/98.6.
Tesfahun, E., Kumie, A., Legesse, W., Kloos, H., & Beyene, A. (2014). Assessment of composition and generation rate of health-care wastes in selected public and private hospitals of Ethiopia. Waste Management & Research, 32(3), 215-220. doi: 10.1177/0734242X14521683
WHO (World Health Organization) (2004). Safe health-care waste management. Policy paper. No. 27. Geneva: World Health organization.
WHO (World Health Organization) (2018). WHO fact sheet. http: / / www.healthcarewaste.org.
How to Cite
ABDULSAMAD, Q. N. (2021). EVALUATION OF HOSPITALS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROCESS, THE CASE STUDY OF DUHOK CITY. Journal of Duhok University, 24(1), 88-106. https://doi.org/10.26682/sjuod.2021.24.1.11
Pure and Engineering Sciences