Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal <p>UoD Journal is a bi-annual academic journal.&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed, open access journal with eISSN: 2521-4861, pISSN:1812-7568</p> <p>Each Volume consists of three Sections:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Humanities and Pure.</li> <li class="show">Engineering Sciences.</li> <li class="show">Agriculture and Veterinary&nbsp;Science.</li> </ul> en-US <p>It is the policy of the Journal of Duhok University to own the copyright of the technical contributions. 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All Rights Reserved.&nbsp;</p> sidqi.yassen@uod.ac (Mr. Sidqi Mohammed Suliman Yassen) jdu@uod.ac (Ms. Jenar) Sat, 28 Aug 2021 17:00:36 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 THE DISTRIBUTION OF PATHOGENS, RISK FACTORS AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS AMONG POST-SURGICAL SITE INFECTION IN RIZGARI TEACHING HOSPITAL IN ERBIL/KURDISTAN REGION/IRAQ https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/403 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong><strong>to find out the incidence of Post-Surgical Site Infections, risk factors, types of the isolated bacteria and</strong> <strong>their antibiotic susceptibility patterns for patients admitted to Rizgari Teaching Hospital in Erbil city.</strong></p> <p><strong><br> </strong></p> <p><strong>Methods: A prospective study was performed on 160 patients admitted to Rizgary Teaching Hospital for surgical operations over a period of six months (November 2015 to June 2016). Culture, identification and sensitivity tests for the isolated organisms from Post-Surgical Site Infections were done by using VITEK 2 systems in Laboratory of Rizgari Hospital.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: The incidence of PSSIs was 19.4%. <em>E.coli</em> was the most common isolated pathogen (29.2%) followed by <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (20.8%). Both <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> and <em>Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus</em> had 12.5% for each. <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Enterococcus faecium</em> had 8.3% each and both <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> and Streptococcus <em>spp</em>. had only 4.2% each There was 100% resistance of <em>E. </em>coli regarding third generation cephalosporin but were 100% sensitive to Imipenem and meropenem. 60% of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> were resistant to oxacillin (MRSA). Smoking, past medical history, contaminated wounds, long duration of operation, and improper use of antibiotics were risk factors.</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: There was an increased rate of PSSIs due to risk factors. There were multi-resistant strains of isolated bacteria mainly </strong><strong><em>E.coli</em></strong><strong> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> which denotes the abuse of antibiotics. This can be attributed to lack of proper guidance for the use of antibiotics both prophylactically and postoperatively.</strong></p> HAVAL HASSAN ABDULQADER; ABDULRAHMAN TOWFEEQ SAADI Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/403 Mon, 28 Oct 2019 06:18:38 +0000 STABILITY OF RICCATI STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/404 <p><strong>In this work, we &nbsp;&nbsp;study &nbsp;the numerical method for solving stability &nbsp;of &nbsp;Riccati stochastic differential equation, because of the difficulty of finding analytical solutions for many of the stochastic differential equations the Riccati method &nbsp;&nbsp;was used. Numerical simulations for different selected &nbsp;&nbsp;examples are implemented. In addition, the absolute error, the linear stability are supported by numerical tests problems</strong></p> ADEL S. HUSSAIN Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/404 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 00:47:37 +0000 IMPACT OF INTEGRAL DIMENSIONS ON HALTON AND SOBOL SEQUENCES PERFORMANCE https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/405 <p><strong>Halton and Sobol sequences are two of the most popular number sets used in quasi-Monte Carlo methods.&nbsp; These sequences are effectively used instead of pseudo random numbers in the evaluation of integrals. In this paper, the two sequences are compared in terms of the size of the number sets and dimensionality. The comparison is implemented with Matlab programming for evaluating numerical integrals. The absolute error values of the investigated integral tests, with constant number of points (n) show that the optimum performance of Sobol is better than Halton at dimension 2 of test 1 and</strong> <strong>at dimension 2 of test 2. Performance of sequences have been analysed with different dimensions and (n)s. The practical results show that, except for the first dimension, Sobol sequence is better than Halton sequence with output values more stable and low-discrepancy feature&nbsp; when the dimension value is increased while this feature is deteriorated with Halton sequence.</strong></p> NADIA AKRAM MOHAMMED;, SHAFIKA SULTAN ABDULLAH Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/405 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 01:00:40 +0000 ASYMPTOTIC STABILITY AND BOUNDEDNESS OF SOLUTION OF 3rd ORDER NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/406 <p><strong>In this paper by using the Lyapunov function we investigate the asymptotical stability and boundedness of solution or 3<sup>rd</sup> order nonlinear differential equation. By using Lyapunov direct method &nbsp;to determine the asymptotic stability and bounded of solution for nonlinear differential equation by using a suitable Lyapunov function.</strong></p> SIZAR ABID MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/406 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 01:10:14 +0000 USE OF EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE (EPS) BEADS IN SILICA-FUME CONCRETE https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/407 <p><strong>Concrete is a good constructional material as it posses enough compressive strength for structural purposes, in spite of that concrete has some dis–advantages, one of these main dis–advantages is its high density (2300-2400) kg/m³ .Many trials were made to minimize its density in different ways. Recently Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) granules (98% air) were added to the concrete for this purpose. In this investigation the concrete density is reduced by adding polystyrene granules to the silica-fume concrete. Silica-fume was added for enhancing the concrete strength and balances the loss in concrete strength due to the inclusion of polystyrene granules .Test results show that the inclusion of silica fume to the concrete improves its strength for both normal concrete and concrete of EPS beads. It is concluded that structural concrete (Strength &gt; 17 MPa) with EPS beads can be manufactured when silica fume is added to concrete.</strong></p> LAWEND K. ASKAR, ISMAEL H. MOSA ALBARWARY, MAND K. ASKAR Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/407 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 01:31:10 +0000 STATUS OF TRACE ELEMENTS (IRON, ZINC AND COPPER) IN SERA OF PREGNANT WOMEN AT THIRD TRIMESTER https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/408 <p><strong>Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is a biological phenomenon associated with dynamic changes in physical, mental and biochemical alterations in body. Maintaining the appropriate micronutrient levels is considered essential for developing the normal pregnancy otherwise there would be adverse pregnancy outcomes. Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in all trimesters of pregnancy where it is regarded as one of the most common causes of maternal death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the serum level of iron, zinc and copper at the third trimester of pregnancy and to ascertain the association between trace elements and hematological parameters.</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in January - August 2018.&nbsp; Study participants were divided in to two groups and each group consists of 40 pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy. The study group consists of women who did not take iron and folic acid supplements whereas the control group represented pregnant women who took iron and folic acid supplements (400 µg/day). Both zinc and copper were assayed using atomic absorption method whereas iron was measured manually using spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis for all study variables was done using SPSS version 18. All variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and p values of 0.05 or less were considered statistically significant.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: Mean serum iron level was statistically significantly lower in study subjects compared with controls (p = 0.01). Moreover, mean serum zinc concentration displayed a highly statistically significantly lower values in study subjects compared to controls (p &lt; 0.0001). However, mean serum copper level was slightly lower in study group but did not show any statistically significant differences. No significant correlation seen between iron with zinc and copper and iron with hematological variables</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: Pregnant women who did not take iron and folic acid supplementation developed maternal anemia as well as hypozincemia particularly in the third trimester. Therefore, sufficient intake of iron and zinc supplementation and trace metals rich diet during pregnancy is recommended to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes.</strong></p> SHELAN HAWWAL RASOOL, AHID NAJIMELDDIN ABDULLAH, QAYS LAZGIN BARANY, RAED SALIM AL-NAEMY Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/408 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 MODIFIED CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD FOR TRAINING NEURAL NETWORKS BASED ON LOGISTIC MAPPING https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/409 <p><strong>In this paper, we suggested a modified conjugate gradient method for training neural network which assurance the descent and the sufficient descent conditions. The global convergence of our proposed method has been studied. Finally, the test results present that, in general, the modified method is more superior and efficient when compared to other standard conjugate gradient methods</strong></p> ALAA LUQMAN IBRAHIM, SALAH GAZI SHAREEF Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/409 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 02:19:34 +0000 SEROPREVALENCE OF Coxiella Burnetii AMONG MEAT HANDLERS IN DUHOK CITY, IRAQ. https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/410 <p>Background<strong>: </strong>Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by <em>Coxiella burnetii</em>, most commonly infect people who work in close contact with animals and their carcasses like butchers and abattoir workers.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was carried out for the first time in the area to show the prevalence of Q fever among butchers and abattoir workers in Duhok city, as one of the main risk groups.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 86 serum samples were collected from butchers (54) and abattoir workers (32) working in Duhok city from June to August, 2018. ELISA kit (Vircell SL, Spain) was used to detect IgG and IgM antibodies against <em>C. burnetii</em> phase II antigen.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Results: </strong>Out of 86 serum samples with mean age 31.8 ±11.8, 23 (26 %) were positive for IgG in which 12 (22.2%) were butchers and 11 (34.4%) were abattoir workers, while 5 (5.8%) were positive for IgM and only recorded among butchers. The percentages of IgM positive cases were decreased with increasing of age in opposite of IgG cases in which the highest percentage of IgG was 30.2% in age group 16-30 years while the lowest percentage was 16.7% in age group more than 45 years. The same picture was found with years of occupation in which the highest percentage of IgG was 31.8% in those worked from 0.5 to 10 years, while the lowest percentage was 11.8% in those who have more than 20 years of working.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that <em>C. burnetii</em> infection is widespread among butchers and abattoir workers.</p> RAND BAHDEEN JALAL*, ALI YAHYA SAEED Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/410 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATION OF THE EXISTING SIDEWALKS IN DUHOK CITY https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/411 <p>­<strong>This study investigates the current conditions of the sidewalks in the city of Duhok, northern Kurdistan Region of Iraq, as well as their compatibility with international standard sidewalk regulations. The pedestrian paths in this city are not seen as a preferred transportation mode and therefore, the people find difficulties in walking to the destination and are sometimes obliged to walk in the roads or rather depend on automobiles for traveling to longer destinations. This could be partly attributed to lack, inefficiency or non-attractiveness of the sidewalks in most parts of the city particularly residential areas. Most the sidewalks are generally not conductive to walking in terms of poor design, used improper surface materials, poor surface levelness, increased grading, discontinuity, and the existence of obstacles, such as protruding materials. As a result, the local people do not generally use walking as the preferred mode of travel to destinations; they rather prefer the use of automobiles. On the basis of these facts, this study seeks to present an overview of the structural conditions of the existing sidewalks and to find existing shortcomings compared to the International standards. It also proposes feasible recommendations to provide better sidewalks in order to improve the pedestrian environment and mobility in the city. The study findings indicate that Duhok city needs improved sidewalks, pedestrian facilities to reduce dependence on automobiles and contribute to building a healthy and aesthetic environment.</strong></p> QAIDAR N. ABDULSAMAD, , JAMBALLY A. MOHAMMED, PIRES H. ABDULLAH Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/411 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 04:21:25 +0000 THE KNOWLEDGE TOWARD OBESITY AND GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN DUHOK CITY https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/412 <p><strong>The extensiveness of overweight and obesity among pregnant women is a growing public health concern in the developed countries, as it </strong><strong>related to adverse pregnancy outcomes</strong><strong>. This problem is considered by </strong><strong>World Health Organization </strong><strong>as a major health challenges. This study aimed to assess the pregnant women’s knowledge toward obesity, gestational weight gain, and the </strong><strong>safe method to prevent this gain. </strong></p> <p><strong>A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted for 400 pregnant women who attended the antenatal care units in eight of Primary Health Care Centers, from 1<sup>st</sup> of August to the 20<sup>th</sup> of October 2016. They have been directly interviewed by a structured questionnaire to identify their knowledge regarding their weight and Body Mass Index category, their ideas toward the complications of excessive weight gain during pregnancy, and the safe preventive effective management. A bit less than half of the sample (46.3%) were within normal weight, and 208(52%) of participants were overweight or obese, while 137 (36.8%) of them believed that they were overweight and obese. The difference weight gain between first and third trimester of pregnancy was (10.7 Kg), and (91.3 %) agreed that the physical activities and the advices about them were the main ways to prevent the excess weight gain. &nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>The majority of pregnant women had limited knowledge about obesity or overweight, excessive gestational weight gain and their adverse effects during pregnancy. The effective media, professional healthcare and providing health education programs are required to improve the level of this knowledge</strong></p> IMAN YOUSIF ABDULMALEK, SRWA ABDULKHALIQ MUHAMAD AMIAN Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/412 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 04:31:54 +0000 BEST PRACTICES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WRITING GOOD SOFTWARE https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/413 <p><strong>Writing good software is not an easy task, it requires a lot of coding experience and skills. Therefore, inexperienced software developers or newbies suffer from this critical task. In this paper, we provide guidelines to help in this important context. It presents the most important best practices and recommendations of writing good software from software engineering perspective regardless of the software domain (whether for desktop, mobile, web, or embedded), software size, and software complexity. The best practices provided in this paper are organized in taxonomy of many categories to ease the process of considering them while developing software.&nbsp; Furthermore, many useful, practical, and actionable recommendations are given mostly in each category to be considered by software developers</strong></p> QUSAY IDREES SARHAN Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/413 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 04:43:27 +0000 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF LOW COST DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR ECG SIGNAL AND EDR USING LABVIEW AND ARDUINO https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/414 <p><strong>usage of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals not only limited to the medical services, but also used for studying, learning, processing and analysing. However, the devices such as BIOPAC Systems that used for this purpose are extremely expensive and often not existed, particularly in the third world. The aim of this paper is to design and implement low cost data acquisition system to capture ECG signals and generating ECG-Derived Respiration (EDR) using the LabVIEW platform and Arduino with help of AD8232 chip.</strong> <strong>The system is designed to monitor the heart signals over the time and calculates the heart rate accurately. It also constructs the breathing signal indirectly by detecting R peaks in ECG signals and interpolating them. Furthermore, this system introduces a unique feature through giving ability to save both the heart and breathing signals as the Matlab file to be used for further analysis. The outcomes show that the ECG signals are in the standard range, as well as constructing breathing signal was successfully done, and the obtained low cost system can be useful for biomedical studies.</strong></p> DILSHAD HASSAN SALLO Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/414 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 04:52:35 +0000 ADAPTIVE NEURO-FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM FOR ESTIMATION OF WATER QUALITY INDEX IN DUHOK CAMPS https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/415 <p><strong>The most appropriate method of communicating water quality situation of water bodies is the Water Quality Index (WQI); while user participation and dealing with uncertainty are required for the evaluation of WQI. The aim of WQI is to convert complicated water quality data to information which can be used and understood by users. This index is vital for users to know the gradation of suitable (fresh) water and unsuitable water which might be poisonous and cause serious diseases sometimes. The index might also be used to test the water quality before drilling water wells which are costly and can be really harmful to the environment; accordingly, costs and risks can be reduced a great deal. Lately, the algorithms of artificial intelligence which are suitable for nonlinear prediction and dealing with uncertain domains have been implemented in different fields of water quality estimation. The purpose of this study is to estimate the water quality index using data sets obtained from 22 camps located in six districts in Duhok city for the period March to August 2018. The data sets contain six water quality parameters which are Nitrates (NO3), Sulphate (SO4), Total Hardness (TH), PH, Total ALkalinity (T. AL) and Calcium (Ca). This paper uses the application of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for modeling the estimation of water quality index. This model is utilized to train, test and check the index. Statistical criteria such as Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) are used to assess the performance of the ANFIS model. Investigations show that for estimation WQI, the RMSE values are 0.0346, 0.2109 and 0.0403 for training, checking and testing stages, respectively. While, the values of MSE are 0.0012, 0.0445 and 0.0016 for training, checking and testing stages, respectively. Based on the results of the criteria, the ANFIS estimation model has the ability to forecast the water quality index for Duhok camps with reasonable accuracy, and it is useful and valuable for the estimation of WQI</strong></p> AMERA ISMAIL MELHUM, JWAN ABDULKHALIQ MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/415 Tue, 29 Oct 2019 06:00:16 +0000 EFFICIENT MECHANISM FOR SECURING SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK AGAINST ARP SPOOFING ATTACK https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/419 <p><strong>Software Defined Network SDN is a new emerging paradigm of networking which decouples the data plane and the control plane. It is expected to be a solution to overcome the limitations of traditional networks. Conventional networks had several security problems, some of them disappeared by SDN and some others still exist such as Address Resolution Protocol ARP spoofing. This paper discusses the attacks of ARP spoofing and presents a deep study on the existing solutions either in traditional or SDN environments. A light, reliable, fast and effective mechanism has been proposed to prevent ARP spoofing, without any additional software or hardware by utilising SDN capabilities. In this work, the SDN controller has been extended by a module which checks every ARP packet in network to detect possible spoofed packets and stop them. Experiments were conducted on the simulated environment using Mininet to check the functionality of the proposed mechanism. The simulation results showed that the proposed mechanism is robust against ARP spoofing attack.</strong></p> HARMAN Y. I. KHALID, PARISHAN M. ISMAEL, AHMAD BAHEEJ AL-KHALIL Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/419 Sun, 03 Nov 2019 23:49:18 +0000 OVEREXPRESSION OF HER2/NEU ONCOGEN, P53 AND ESTROGEN RECEPTOR IN ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA AND CARCINOMA https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/420 <h1>Background: Endometrial hyperplasia with its two types (simple and complex hyperplasia with or without atypia) is one of the most important endometrial lesions. The probability of progression of endometrial hyperplasia to carcinoma is related to the degree of architectural and/or cytological atypia. There are two fundamentally different pathogenic types of endometrial carcinoma: type I (estrogen related, endometrioid type) and type II (non-estrogen related, non-endometrioid type). Recently, various biomarkers detect prognostic factors in endometrial carcinomas, such as Her2/neu, P53 as well as Estrogen Receptor (ER).</h1> <p><strong><br> </strong></p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: During the period from </strong><strong>November 2015 to May 2016</strong><strong>, 101cases (as blocks) were collected from the archive of different Laboratories. There were 52 cases of endometrial hyperplasia; the other 49 cases were endometrial carcinoma</strong><strong>. All the cases were revised histologically (using </strong><strong>Hematoxylin and Eosin </strong><strong>stain) to identify the types of hyperplasia and carcinoma, as well as the grade of carcinoma and the degree of myometrial invasion. Three markers were applied (Her2/neu, P53 and Estrogen Receptor) by using automated immunohistochemistry staining.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong><strong>The predominant cases of </strong><strong>the endometrial hyperplasia were in the 5<sup>th</sup> decade with a mean age (44.6) years. The majority were simple hyperplasia without atypia. The endometrial carcinoma cases were predominant in the 6<sup>th</sup> decade with a mean age (55.5) years. The majorities were of the classical type (65.3%) and grade II (48.9%). Her2/neu expression significantly increased in positivity (p=0.001), while P53 did not show significant changes with disease progression (p= 0.1). Estrogen Receptor immunoreactivity was decreased significantly from simple hyperplasia to carcinoma (p= 0.001). There were no correlation between these triple markers and increasing grade. Although, the number of cases showed more positivity of Her2/neu and P53 with the increasing of myometrial invasion and expression of Estrogen receptor decreased but the relation was statistically not significant (p= 0.9).</strong><strong> Among the studied cases, there were 18.2% and 50% of complex hyperplasia without atypia and atypical hyperplasia respectively transmitted to carcinoma, while none of the simple hyperplasia cases showed transmission to carcinoma. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions: Cases of the endometrial hyperplasia were more prevalent at pre and perimenopausal period while endometrial carcinoma was more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Her2/neu showed more immunoreactivity with progression of the pathological change (increasing morphological and cytological complexity) from endometrial hyperplasia to carcinoma in contrast to Estrogen Receptor expression which showed converse relationship with progression of the disease. Expression of P53 was seen to have more immunoreactivity with high grade and highly invasive tumor</strong></p> ZIHEL H. HUSSEIN, BASHAR A. HASSAWI Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/420 Sun, 03 Nov 2019 23:57:33 +0000 MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Salmonella Enterica FROM PATIENTS WITH DIARRHEA IN DUHOK GOVERNORATE KURDISTAN REGION / IRAQ https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/421 <h1>Background and objectives: <em>Salmonella enterica</em> are responsible for causing the highest number of bacterial foodborne infections in the world. Methods: The Present study was carried out for detection and molecular identification of <em>Salmonella enterica</em> isolated from stool specimens of patients suffering from diarrhoea using traditional method and identification by using of RT-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) techniques. Results: Out of the 121 patients with diarrhoea attended Azadi and Heevi Teaching Hospitals, 72 cases (59.504%) gave positive results for culturing. While by PCR method, 68 cases (56.198%) gave positive results for <em>Salmonella enterica</em>. In this study, (49) cases (40.495%) of non-<em>Salmonella</em> <em>spp</em>. gave negative results by culture and (53) cases (43.8%) of non-<em>Salmonella</em> <em>spp</em>. gave negative results by PCR method. Conclusions: The current study showed that RT-PCR technique is more accurate and sensitive compared to traditional methods.&nbsp;</h1> DOAA ABDULKHALEQ SALIH, DR. JASSIM M. ABDO, DR. ABDULRAHMAN T. SAADI Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Duhok University https://portal.uod.ac/journal/index.php/uodjournal/article/view/421 Mon, 04 Nov 2019 00:06:52 +0000